Jaundice is a symptom of liver disease, which manifest as yellowish discoloration of urine and eyes,
Diagnosis is confirmed by performing liver function test (blood test)
Causes of jaundice are
Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia– is due to the liver diseases which can either be liver inflammation or obstruction in biliary system of the liver
Obstruction in the biliary system of liver
Following tests are done to know the cause of jaundice
Abdomen pain can be acute in onset and short in duration or maybe chronic of long duration
Common causes of acute abdomen pain are
Causes of chronic pain abdomen are
Treatment of pain depends upon the cause of pain, patients with acute severe pain abdomen should be immediately brought to medical attention so that the exact diagnosis can be established with proper investigations.
Chronic pain abdomen is mostly due to functional disorders like Functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, which are diagnosed once the organic causes are ruled out with proper investigations.
Bleeding from any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus is defined as gastrointestinal bleeding, Patient may be having bleeding from the mouth (fresh red or coffee-colored altered blood) or in the stool. (which can be red, maroon, black).
Common causes of GI bleed are
Upper GI bleed
Lower GI bleed
Anal canal sources (Bright red blood)
Small intestinal source
Management of GI bleed depends upon magnitude and source of the bleed, patients with significant bleed should be admitted and resuscitated with blood and plasma expander infusion. Patients with chronic and small amounts of bleed can be investigated as an outpatient. Upper GI endoscopy and colonoscopy are the initial investigations for the cause of bleed, if these investigations are normal, the next line of investigations are CT enterography and CT angiography, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon enteroscopy.
Once the cause is established treatment depends upon the cause of bleed and includes ligation for esophageal varices, clip and APC application for ulcers and vascular lesions, and surgery for malignancies
|Variceal band ligation||Clip application for ulcer||Glue application for fundal varix|
Metal Stent placed for Esophageal cancer
Diarrhea is an increase in frequency or decrease inconsistency (liquid or semisolid) of stool
Diarrhea can be acute (less than 28 days) or chronic
Acute diarrhea is most infectious in origin and are self-limiting and are treated by oral and intravenous fluids, and use of antibiotics and antiparasitic agents in selected cases
Long-standing diarrhea is caused by diseases of the small and large intestine and pancreatic insufficiency
Small intestinal causes of diarrhea
Large bowel causes of diarrhea
Other causes include excessive secretion due to various endocrinological causes
Diagnosis requires evaluation of stool, blood tests, endoscopy, colonoscopy and biopsies. Therapy is targeted at specific etiology.
Constipation is a decrease in the frequency of stool (less than one stool in 3 days) or change form normal stool frequency for a particular individual
Common causes of constipation are
Evaluation requires blood testing and colonoscopy., and cross-sectional imaging and anal manometry
Treatment is targeted at specific etiology